Title-case questions

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Title-case questions

fbennett
Nick Bart caught a flaw in the citeproc-js title-casing method, and
Emiliano Heyns has done a bunch of additional testing. I've rewritten
part of the code for it, mostly to get nested tags to work correctly.
None of the changes impact existing tests, but a few things came up
that I thought I should run past the group.

## Parentheses

The method currently balks at the first word after an open parens.
It's easy to fix, but would it be right to ignore parens, and just
carry title-casing transforms through as if they weren't there?

## Quotes

In the current method, quoted text is treated as if it were enclosed
in a "nocase" span tag -- it is rendered literal, without case
transforms. Is that the right way to handle it? The current code will
need a little more attention before release (it assumes a space after
closing quotes), but I wanted to confirm before putting in more time
on it.

## Italics, small-caps, bold

These three are currently ignored for title-casing purposes. I'm
pretty sure that's right, but thought I would confirm here just to be
sure.


Thoughts?

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Re: Title-case questions

bwiernik
I don't think the literal tags for words in quotes are correct. For example, this reference:

Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined and measured. The American Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 201–292. http://doi.org/10.2307/1412107

"General intelligence," should probably be capitalized in Title Case. Use of quotes in titles like this is rare, but it does happen.
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Re: Title-case questions

fbennett
On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 1:37 PM, bwiernik <[hidden email]> wrote:
> I don't think the literal tags for words in quotes are correct. For example,
> this reference:
>
> Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined and
> measured. The American Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 201–292.
> http://doi.org/10.2307/1412107
>
> "General intelligence," should probably be capitalized in Title Case. Use of
> quotes in titles like this is rare, but it does happen.

But in that example, the title as a whole is set in sentence case, so
case conversions would not performed at all. To get a capital "I" in
"General Intelligence," it would need to be capitalized in the input
data.

The reverse case - a Title Case title with a quoted title in sentence
case - would test whether literal rendering is the right way to go. In
that configuration, literal rendering would keep the embedded title in
sentence case, while ordinary rendering would force it to Title Case
along with the rest of the title.






>
>
>
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> View this message in context: http://xbiblio-devel.2463403.n2.nabble.com/Title-case-questions-tp7579427p7579432.html
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Re: Title-case questions

bwiernik
Sorry, I wasn't very clear. I included the citation just to give an example set of data for which the quote rule would not always work--didn't mean to illustrate a specific format.

The title is stored in the reference manager as:
“General intelligence,” objectively determined and measured

Rendered in sentence case:
“General intelligence,” objectively determined and measured

Expected render in title case:
“General Intelligence,” Objectively Determined and Measured

Literal render in title case:
“General intelligence,” Objectively Determined and Measured

So as you note, literal rendering of quoted text would produce incorrect output.
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Re: Title-case questions

Sebastian Karcher
In reply to this post by fbennett
sorry for chiming in late, the original e-mail had actually gotten caught in Spam. I agree with bwiernik -- while the two other issue you raise are right, quotation marks shouldn't disable casing. See e.g.
Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed. “An Artist Is His Own Fault”: John O’Hara on Writers and Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977.
from CMoS 14.104
That would be “An artist is his own fault”: John O’Hara on writers and writing.
in sentence case. And conversely (and I took that to be bwiernik's point), the title he cites would be
“General Intelligence,” Objectively Determined and Measured.
in title case/Chicago Manual.

On Sat, Nov 14, 2015 at 11:30 PM, Frank Bennett <[hidden email]> wrote:
On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 1:37 PM, bwiernik <[hidden email]> wrote:
> I don't think the literal tags for words in quotes are correct. For example,
> this reference:
>
> Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined and
> measured. The American Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 201–292.
> http://doi.org/10.2307/1412107
>
> "General intelligence," should probably be capitalized in Title Case. Use of
> quotes in titles like this is rare, but it does happen.

But in that example, the title as a whole is set in sentence case, so
case conversions would not performed at all. To get a capital "I" in
"General Intelligence," it would need to be capitalized in the input
data.

The reverse case - a Title Case title with a quoted title in sentence
case - would test whether literal rendering is the right way to go. In
that configuration, literal rendering would keep the embedded title in
sentence case, while ordinary rendering would force it to Title Case
along with the rest of the title.






>
>
>
> --
> View this message in context: http://xbiblio-devel.2463403.n2.nabble.com/Title-case-questions-tp7579427p7579432.html
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>
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Re: Title-case questions

fbennett

Sounds good. That was my question on that one.

On Nov 15, 2015 14:38, "Sebastian Karcher" <[hidden email]> wrote:
sorry for chiming in late, the original e-mail had actually gotten caught in Spam. I agree with bwiernik -- while the two other issue you raise are right, quotation marks shouldn't disable casing. See e.g.
Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed. “An Artist Is His Own Fault”: John O’Hara on Writers and Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977.
from CMoS 14.104
That would be “An artist is his own fault”: John O’Hara on writers and writing.
in sentence case. And conversely (and I took that to be bwiernik's point), the title he cites would be
“General Intelligence,” Objectively Determined and Measured.
in title case/Chicago Manual.

On Sat, Nov 14, 2015 at 11:30 PM, Frank Bennett <[hidden email]> wrote:
On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 1:37 PM, bwiernik <[hidden email]> wrote:
> I don't think the literal tags for words in quotes are correct. For example,
> this reference:
>
> Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined and
> measured. The American Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 201–292.
> http://doi.org/10.2307/1412107
>
> "General intelligence," should probably be capitalized in Title Case. Use of
> quotes in titles like this is rare, but it does happen.

But in that example, the title as a whole is set in sentence case, so
case conversions would not performed at all. To get a capital "I" in
"General Intelligence," it would need to be capitalized in the input
data.

The reverse case - a Title Case title with a quoted title in sentence
case - would test whether literal rendering is the right way to go. In
that configuration, literal rendering would keep the embedded title in
sentence case, while ordinary rendering would force it to Title Case
along with the rest of the title.






>
>
>
> --
> View this message in context: http://xbiblio-devel.2463403.n2.nabble.com/Title-case-questions-tp7579427p7579432.html
> Sent from the xbiblio-devel mailing list archive at Nabble.com.
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Re: Title-case questions

Nick Bart
I agree: neither parentheses (nor [] or {}, for that matter), nor quotes (plain or curly, single or double), nor HTML-like markup should disable conversion to title case.

On 15 November 2015 at 06:04, Frank Bennett <[hidden email]> wrote:

Sounds good. That was my question on that one.

On Nov 15, 2015 14:38, "Sebastian Karcher" <[hidden email]> wrote:
sorry for chiming in late, the original e-mail had actually gotten caught in Spam. I agree with bwiernik -- while the two other issue you raise are right, quotation marks shouldn't disable casing. See e.g.
Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed. “An Artist Is His Own Fault”: John O’Hara on Writers and Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977.
from CMoS 14.104
That would be “An artist is his own fault”: John O’Hara on writers and writing.
in sentence case. And conversely (and I took that to be bwiernik's point), the title he cites would be
“General Intelligence,” Objectively Determined and Measured.
in title case/Chicago Manual.

On Sat, Nov 14, 2015 at 11:30 PM, Frank Bennett <[hidden email]> wrote:
On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 1:37 PM, bwiernik <[hidden email]> wrote:
> I don't think the literal tags for words in quotes are correct. For example,
> this reference:
>
> Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined and
> measured. The American Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 201–292.
> http://doi.org/10.2307/1412107
>
> "General intelligence," should probably be capitalized in Title Case. Use of
> quotes in titles like this is rare, but it does happen.

But in that example, the title as a whole is set in sentence case, so
case conversions would not performed at all. To get a capital "I" in
"General Intelligence," it would need to be capitalized in the input
data.

The reverse case - a Title Case title with a quoted title in sentence
case - would test whether literal rendering is the right way to go. In
that configuration, literal rendering would keep the embedded title in
sentence case, while ordinary rendering would force it to Title Case
along with the rest of the title.






>
>
>
> --
> View this message in context: http://xbiblio-devel.2463403.n2.nabble.com/Title-case-questions-tp7579427p7579432.html
> Sent from the xbiblio-devel mailing list archive at Nabble.com.
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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> [hidden email]
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Re: Title-case questions

rmzelle
Administrator
I do think italics and small-caps (and possibly superscript/subscript
too) markup should disable title casing.

Example:

L-Malic acid formation by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae
amplified for fumarase
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(91)90122-Q

"L-Malic acid" starts with an all-caps character. I'm afraid it would
turn into "L-malic acid" with title casing, which would be incorrect.
"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is in italics and should not change
capitalization, since it's a species name.

(see http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(87)90253-7 for another title
with the same two cases)

Rintze

On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 4:12 AM, Nick Bart <[hidden email]> wrote:

> I agree: neither parentheses (nor [] or {}, for that matter), nor quotes
> (plain or curly, single or double), nor HTML-like markup should disable
> conversion to title case.
>
> On 15 November 2015 at 06:04, Frank Bennett <[hidden email]> wrote:
>>
>> Sounds good. That was my question on that one.
>>
>> On Nov 15, 2015 14:38, "Sebastian Karcher" <[hidden email]>
>> wrote:
>>>
>>> sorry for chiming in late, the original e-mail had actually gotten caught
>>> in Spam. I agree with bwiernik -- while the two other issue you raise are
>>> right, quotation marks shouldn't disable casing. See e.g.
>>> Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed. “An Artist Is His Own Fault”: John O’Hara on
>>> Writers and Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977.
>>> from CMoS 14.104
>>> That would be “An artist is his own fault”: John O’Hara on writers and
>>> writing.
>>> in sentence case. And conversely (and I took that to be bwiernik's
>>> point), the title he cites would be
>>> “General Intelligence,” Objectively Determined and Measured.
>>> in title case/Chicago Manual.
>>>
>>> On Sat, Nov 14, 2015 at 11:30 PM, Frank Bennett <[hidden email]>
>>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>> On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 1:37 PM, bwiernik <[hidden email]> wrote:
>>>> > I don't think the literal tags for words in quotes are correct. For
>>>> > example,
>>>> > this reference:
>>>> >
>>>> > Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined
>>>> > and
>>>> > measured. The American Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 201–292.
>>>> > http://doi.org/10.2307/1412107
>>>> >
>>>> > "General intelligence," should probably be capitalized in Title Case.
>>>> > Use of
>>>> > quotes in titles like this is rare, but it does happen.
>>>>
>>>> But in that example, the title as a whole is set in sentence case, so
>>>> case conversions would not performed at all. To get a capital "I" in
>>>> "General Intelligence," it would need to be capitalized in the input
>>>> data.
>>>>
>>>> The reverse case - a Title Case title with a quoted title in sentence
>>>> case - would test whether literal rendering is the right way to go. In
>>>> that configuration, literal rendering would keep the embedded title in
>>>> sentence case, while ordinary rendering would force it to Title Case
>>>> along with the rest of the title.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> >
>>>> >
>>>> >
>>>> > --
>>>> > View this message in context:
>>>> > http://xbiblio-devel.2463403.n2.nabble.com/Title-case-questions-tp7579427p7579432.html
>>>> > Sent from the xbiblio-devel mailing list archive at Nabble.com.
>>>> >
>>>> >
>>>> > ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>>>> > _______________________________________________
>>>> > xbiblio-devel mailing list
>>>> > [hidden email]
>>>> > https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/xbiblio-devel
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>>>> _______________________________________________
>>>> xbiblio-devel mailing list
>>>> [hidden email]
>>>> https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/xbiblio-devel
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Sebastian Karcher, PhD
>>> www.sebastiankarcher.com
>>>
>>>
>>> ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>>>
>>> _______________________________________________
>>> xbiblio-devel mailing list
>>> [hidden email]
>>> https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/xbiblio-devel
>>>
>>
>>
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Re: Title-case questions

Sebastian Karcher
That's getting rather tricky and we're hitting the limits of what simple rich text markup can do:
For species, Rintze is correct:

- Lowercase the second part of a species name, such as fulvescens in Acipenser fulvescens, even if it is the last word in a title or subtitle.

but that's not the case for book titles in article titles, which should be title cased (no good example, but clear from 14.177).
If you want to despair entirely, Chicago Manual treats book titles within book titles ( Annotations to “Finnegans Wake” 14.102) Differently from species names in book titles (Postnatal Development of the Ovary in Homo sapiens and Macaca mulatta 14.103)

I'd vote with Nick and say let's leave it alone, but unless we're going to introduce semantic markup (nooo!) we won't be getting this right consistently.

What this does suggest to me is that we should formalize the no-case (?) tags that citeproc-js supports informally.

On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 7:53 AM, Rintze Zelle <[hidden email]> wrote:
I do think italics and small-caps (and possibly superscript/subscript
too) markup should disable title casing.

Example:

L-Malic acid formation by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae
amplified for fumarase
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(91)90122-Q

"L-Malic acid" starts with an all-caps character. I'm afraid it would
turn into "L-malic acid" with title casing, which would be incorrect.
"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is in italics and should not change
capitalization, since it's a species name.

(see http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(87)90253-7 for another title
with the same two cases)

Rintze

On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 4:12 AM, Nick Bart <[hidden email]> wrote:
> I agree: neither parentheses (nor [] or {}, for that matter), nor quotes
> (plain or curly, single or double), nor HTML-like markup should disable
> conversion to title case.
>
> On 15 November 2015 at 06:04, Frank Bennett <[hidden email]> wrote:
>>
>> Sounds good. That was my question on that one.
>>
>> On Nov 15, 2015 14:38, "Sebastian Karcher" <[hidden email]>
>> wrote:
>>>
>>> sorry for chiming in late, the original e-mail had actually gotten caught
>>> in Spam. I agree with bwiernik -- while the two other issue you raise are
>>> right, quotation marks shouldn't disable casing. See e.g.
>>> Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed. “An Artist Is His Own Fault”: John O’Hara on
>>> Writers and Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977.
>>> from CMoS 14.104
>>> That would be “An artist is his own fault”: John O’Hara on writers and
>>> writing.
>>> in sentence case. And conversely (and I took that to be bwiernik's
>>> point), the title he cites would be
>>> “General Intelligence,” Objectively Determined and Measured.
>>> in title case/Chicago Manual.
>>>
>>> On Sat, Nov 14, 2015 at 11:30 PM, Frank Bennett <[hidden email]>
>>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>> On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 1:37 PM, bwiernik <[hidden email]> wrote:
>>>> > I don't think the literal tags for words in quotes are correct. For
>>>> > example,
>>>> > this reference:
>>>> >
>>>> > Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined
>>>> > and
>>>> > measured. The American Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 201–292.
>>>> > http://doi.org/10.2307/1412107
>>>> >
>>>> > "General intelligence," should probably be capitalized in Title Case.
>>>> > Use of
>>>> > quotes in titles like this is rare, but it does happen.
>>>>
>>>> But in that example, the title as a whole is set in sentence case, so
>>>> case conversions would not performed at all. To get a capital "I" in
>>>> "General Intelligence," it would need to be capitalized in the input
>>>> data.
>>>>
>>>> The reverse case - a Title Case title with a quoted title in sentence
>>>> case - would test whether literal rendering is the right way to go. In
>>>> that configuration, literal rendering would keep the embedded title in
>>>> sentence case, while ordinary rendering would force it to Title Case
>>>> along with the rest of the title.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> >
>>>> >
>>>> >
>>>> > --
>>>> > View this message in context:
>>>> > http://xbiblio-devel.2463403.n2.nabble.com/Title-case-questions-tp7579427p7579432.html
>>>> > Sent from the xbiblio-devel mailing list archive at Nabble.com.
>>>> >
>>>> >
>>>> > ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>>>> > _______________________________________________
>>>> > xbiblio-devel mailing list
>>>> > [hidden email]
>>>> > https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/xbiblio-devel
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>>>> _______________________________________________
>>>> xbiblio-devel mailing list
>>>> [hidden email]
>>>> https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/xbiblio-devel
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Sebastian Karcher, PhD
>>> www.sebastiankarcher.com
>>>
>>>
>>> ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>>>
>>> _______________________________________________
>>> xbiblio-devel mailing list
>>> [hidden email]
>>> https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/xbiblio-devel
>>>
>>
>>
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Re: Title-case questions

Nick Bart
Yes, definitely. Since there is no mechanism to explicitly force uppercase, the titlecaser needs to be inclusive by default, and we must be able to selectively suppress capitalisation where it is incorrect.

`<span class="nocase">` markup, e.g., `The <span class="nocase"><i>Arabidopsis lyrata</i></span> genome sequence and the basis of rapid genome size change` works well and is supported by citeproc-js and pandoc-citeproc.


On 15 November 2015 at 16:11, Sebastian Karcher <[hidden email]> wrote:

What this does suggest to me is that we should formalize the no-case (?) tags that citeproc-js supports informally.

 

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Re: Title-case questions

fbennett
Thanks to all for the feedback.

Disabling of no-case in quoted text is now available for testing in
the latest citeproc-js release, and in the Propachi plugins for
Zotero:

    https://bitbucket.org/fbennett/citeproc-js/src
    https://juris-m.github.io/downloads/#csl-stuff

The i, b, sc, sub, and sup tags are still ignored when title-casing in
this version. From the examples posted by Rintze, Sebastian, and Nick,
it looks like a complete separation between the markup for styling and
case-conversion suppression may be a promising compromise ("explicit
is better than implicit").

Frank


On Mon, Nov 16, 2015 at 6:19 AM, Nick Bart <[hidden email]> wrote:

> Yes, definitely. Since there is no mechanism to explicitly force uppercase,
> the titlecaser needs to be inclusive by default, and we must be able to
> selectively suppress capitalisation where it is incorrect.
>
> `<span class="nocase">` markup, e.g., `The <span
> class="nocase"><i>Arabidopsis lyrata</i></span> genome sequence and the
> basis of rapid genome size change` works well and is supported by
> citeproc-js and pandoc-citeproc.
>
>
> On 15 November 2015 at 16:11, Sebastian Karcher <[hidden email]>
> wrote:
>>
>> …
>> What this does suggest to me is that we should formalize the no-case (?)
>> tags that citeproc-js supports informally.
>> …
>
>
>
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Re: Title-case questions

Sebastian Karcher
Thanks Frank!

>("explicit is better than implicit").

was exactly my thinking wrt casing and rich text, so very much agree with you on that.

On Sun, Nov 15, 2015 at 4:22 PM, Frank Bennett <[hidden email]> wrote:
Thanks to all for the feedback.

Disabling of no-case in quoted text is now available for testing in
the latest citeproc-js release, and in the Propachi plugins for
Zotero:

    https://bitbucket.org/fbennett/citeproc-js/src
    https://juris-m.github.io/downloads/#csl-stuff

The i, b, sc, sub, and sup tags are still ignored when title-casing in
this version. From the examples posted by Rintze, Sebastian, and Nick,
it looks like a complete separation between the markup for styling and
case-conversion suppression may be a promising compromise ("explicit
is better than implicit").

Frank


On Mon, Nov 16, 2015 at 6:19 AM, Nick Bart <[hidden email]> wrote:
> Yes, definitely. Since there is no mechanism to explicitly force uppercase,
> the titlecaser needs to be inclusive by default, and we must be able to
> selectively suppress capitalisation where it is incorrect.
>
> `<span class="nocase">` markup, e.g., `The <span
> class="nocase"><i>Arabidopsis lyrata</i></span> genome sequence and the
> basis of rapid genome size change` works well and is supported by
> citeproc-js and pandoc-citeproc.
>
>
> On 15 November 2015 at 16:11, Sebastian Karcher <[hidden email]>
> wrote:
>>
>> …
>> What this does suggest to me is that we should formalize the no-case (?)
>> tags that citeproc-js supports informally.
>> …
>
>
>
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--
Sebastian Karcher, PhD
www.sebastiankarcher.com

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